S11: Foreign Employment and Vocational Technical Education

Symposium Program Outline and Schedule

Symposium: Foreign Employment and Vocational-Technical Education in Nepal

Third NRNA Global Knowledge Convention

October 17 and 18, 2023

An Overview

“Foreign Employment and Vocational-Technical Education in Nepal” will assess existing challenges and opportunities related to foreign employment and vocational-technical education in Nepal and recommend policies, programs, and implementation mechanisms for developing more robust TVET systems. Focus areas will include a review of identifying the critical features of a strong TVET system based on the native science and technology – governance, employer engagement, occupational Standards, qualifications Framework, quality institutions, and delivery and assessment. We will discuss the different stages of development for each feature. The forum is expected to recommend priorities for the future development of the TVET system. It will review how native skill, arts and culture be the foundation for Nepal’s TVET programs that fit with UN’s Sustainable Goal #4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong experiential learning opportunities for all.


Nepal is a country marked by significant labor migration. As of 2021, it is estimated that more than 4 million Nepalese works abroad, primarily in countries like Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (ILO, 2021). This constitutes nearly 14% of the country’s total population, and remittances from these workers contribute to around 26% of Nepal’s GDP (World Bank, 2021). Youth unemployment remains high at nearly 19%, driving many young people to seek opportunities overseas (CBS, 2021). However, most migrant workers are engaged in unskilled or low-skilled jobs, often in precarious conditions. Nepal depends on labor migration and the remittances of expatriate workers to satisfy its population’s basic and social needs (Adhikari & Vince, 2023). The lack of vocational education based on native science and technology has been identified as a critical gap in leveraging Nepal’s youth potential, both domestically and internationally. In this sense, the focus on vocational education based on native technology/craftsmanship and upskilling youth with abilities to engage in better paid technical work could contribute to increase local employment, sustain economic growth, alleviate poverty and boost prosperity.

Raithane (Native) University: An Initiative to Promote Knowledge Economy through Native Arts, Culture and Heritage

Despite Nepal being rich in native knowledge, skills, culture and overall heritage, it has not been mainstreamed with education system nor with vocational training. CTEVT has the mandate for technical education and vocational training, but it has not been able to incorporate such skills in its curriculum. Dr. Mahabir Pun, the Roman Magsaysay Award winner (2007) has established the ‘National Invention Center’ especially for advancing technical innovation, however, it does not have the academic courses (Bk, 2022). 

Raithane University for Arts and Culture is an initiative to offer affordable, accessible, and quality education tailored to promote native skill, arts, knowledge, and culture so as to create employment within the country for harnessing Nepal’s youth demographic. The proposed university can bridge the gap between conventional education and knowledge heritage. By fostering green-entrepreneurship, native technological and inherited competence, the community colleges/learning centres under the proposed university can engage youth in productive careers within the country reducing the over-reliance on foreign employment. Moreover, community colleges disrupt elitism in higher education by countering social stratification created and maintained by conventional education models. At a time when countries seek to redefine their education policies towards stabilization, prosperity, and democratization of opportunities, the idea of Raithane University offers a powerful connective solution to community, industry, and nation’s economy. It could be the cornerstone for contemporary federal Nepal, a path forward for creating employment domestically so as to contribute the socialism oriented green economy.

The Potential of Community Colleges as the second chance of education

Establishing community colleges/learning centers under the Raithane University focusing to native knowledge and skill in Nepal presents a promising solution to address the challenges of youth engagement and skills development. These institutions can be uniquely designed to align with the demands of both the local and international job markets. Offering a blend of academic and vocational training, community colleges would not only create educational opportunities for young people within Nepal but also pave the way for more skilled foreign employment. American-style community colleges could be good reference for such initiatives. Nepal is ripe for adapting the powerful but flexible idea of community college infrastructure (Gaulee, 2019).

Symposium Team

Chair: Uttam Gaulee, PhD,  Co-Chair: Man Bahadur Bk, PhD

(Contact email: manbdr.bk123@gmail.com)

Symposium Program Schedule

Date/Time Speaker/Moderator/PanelistTopic
 Symposium Chair and Co-ChairIntro to the symposium, and presenters
 Man BK and Uttam GauleeContext
 Dr. Vilma FuentesKeynote  (on global perspective)
 Dr Tejendra Pherali  Migration and foreign employment
 Mrs Sharu JoshiWomen in Foreign Employment
 Dr. Uddhab PyakurelSocial Cost of foreign employment
 Dr Kirti JoshiVocational and Technical Education in Nepal
 Dr. Rabina RasailiGender dimension of employment
 Mr Chakraman BishwakarmaTechnical (Native) Education to the deprived community
 Dr. Leela NyaichaiPromoting employment through native skill, arts, knowledge and culture
 Mr. Kebal K. Bhandari, Secretary, Ministry of Labour, employment and Social SecurityGuest Speaker, Government Perspective on employment generation through vocational education
 Dr. Nahakul KC, VP, Province Planning Commission, Lumbini ProvinceGuest Speaker: Role of province government on employment and vocational education.
 Panel Discussion Moderation by Dr. Man BKLeveraging indigenous and Vocational-Technical education to create opportunities for youth engagement and foreign employment  


Prof. Dr. Bhola Thapa, VC, Kathmandu University

Prof. Dr. Deepak Shakya, VC, Madhesh University

Prof. Dr. Medani Bhandari, VP, Akamai University


  • Adhikari, S., & Vince, J. (2023). Leveraging Labor Migration and Migrant Remittances in Nepal. In Environmental Migration in the Face of Emerging Risks: Historical Case Studies, New Paradigms and Future Directions (pp. 77-98). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  • Bk, Man B (2022), (1) Promoting Knowledge Economy through Native Skill, Arts and Culture in Nepal | Man B Bk, PhD – Academia.edu
  • Gaulee, U. (2019). Community college infrastructure: Open for adaptations in unique contexts. In Global adaptations of community college ifrastructure (pp. 1-11). IGI Global.
  • ILO (International Labour Organization). (2021). Labor Migration in Nepal. Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/.
  • World Bank. (2021). Migration and Remittances Data. Retrieved from [website].
  • CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics). (2021). Nepal Labour Force Survey 2020/2021. Kathmandu: CBS. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/en/ 

List of CV of Session Chair